Immune System Support

Key Indications:  Supplementation of spermidine may reduce the inflammatory cytokines and may lead to an increased production of memory cells. Autophagy may play a major role in immune defense and may support the disposal of pathogenic microorganisms. Autophagy may help mediate immunological memory in older age.

Human Studies

Spermidine, a natural polyamine, suppresses LFA-1 expression on human lymphocyte. Learn More >

Autophagy Defends Cells Against Invading Group A Streptococcus.

Animal Studies

Cytoplasmic bacteria can be targets for autophagy. Learn More >

Selective Modulation of Autophagy, Innate Immunity, and Adaptive Immunity by Small Molecules.

MHC class II antigen loading compartments continuously receive input from autophagosomes. Learn More >